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General Information on the Most expensive Food in the World

Just a couple of shavings of black truffles from France - known as black diamonds - can cost hundreds of dollars in a restaurant in Paris. White truffles from Italy can cost more than three times as much.

We turn to an 1987 article  by Louise Freedman and the Mycological Society of San Francisco for general Guidance:

The mention of truffles conjures up images of the expensive French black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) from the Périgord region of southwest France, used in making pâté de foie gras, or the renowned odorous white truffle (Tuber magnatum) of Alba, in the Piedmont district of Italy. Gaining in popularity and comparing favorably with the Italian truffle, the Oregon truffle is harvested in sufficient quantity to support commercial sales. 

Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of pigs is risky, though, because of their natural tendency to eat any remotely edible thing. For this reason, dogs have been trained to dig into the ground wherever they find these odors, and they willingly exchange their truffle for a piece of bread and a pat on the head.

Remove any soil from truffles just before eating. They must be washed with water and brushed. The outside must be immaculate since they will be used unpeeled. Dry with a paper towel. The fungus is scraped or grated onto food and into sauces and soups just before eating. Truffle slicers have been especially designed for this purpose. Experts recommend that veal, chicken, fish, soufflés, omelettes, pasta, and rice can be glorified with thinly sliced truffles. Cream and cheese sauces avidly take up their flavor. Insert thin wedges of truffle under the skin of a chicken and store it overnight in the refrigerator before roasting.

Whereas once truffles were hallmarks of local cooking — black in France and white in Italy — the globalization of cuisine has led to worldwide demand for an ingredient whose output continues to decline. As with some highly collectible wines, the virulent combination of high value and scarcity have created an environment ripe for fraudulent behavior. French agencies conduct chemical analyses of black truffles to ensure that they are not inferior Chinese or Spanish truffles soaked in truffle oil or juice. White truffles from other areas of Italy have been known to show up at the Alba market, summer truffles passed off as winter.

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